Native American Tribes And Cultures

Pictogram marks of tribal head of the Six Nation on the agreement in which the Native Americans sold their property to the organizers of Pennsylvania. The Iroquois Confederacy, or Six Tribes incorporated The Mohowak, Onedia, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca and Tuscarora.

Customary Apache footwear, worn by a youthful Apache lady at a Sunrise Dance hung on the San Carlos Indian Reservation, Arizona, USA.

Situated on the Navajo Reservation in northern Arizona, Navajo National Monument incorporates a progression of homes developed by an old Pueblan assemble known as the Anasazis.

For a considerable length of time, Navajos and other Native Americans craftspeople have delivered top notch fleece from the downy of churro sheep, an uncommon type of creature initially presented by Spanish travelers.

Osceola drove a little band of Seminole warriors in imperviousness to the U.S. endeavors to the tribe from its local grounds amid the Second Seminole War (1835-1842)

Subsequent to discovering that Indian Territories in the United States were not untouchable to slave pillagers, some Black Seminole Indians moved to Mexico in 1849-50.

Customary Hopi kachina doll cut from cottonwood to speak to a Corn Maiden artist with a bushel of blue corn.

Blackfoot/Cree tribe part Charles Tailfeather, Sr. goes to the Red Earth Festival, a social occasion of Native American craftsmen and craftspeople.

At present under development, the Crazy Horse Memorial, situated operating at a profit Hills of South Dakota, will respect the legacy of the Oglala Lakota warrior and Native American pioneer.

Iroquois town including a bark longhouse, wigwams and an uncovered kayak average of the Six Nation tribes of the Northeast United States and parts of Canada.

As opposed to prevalent misconception, most Native American battling in a fight was finished with war clubs and not with bow and bolts.

President George W. Shrub signs the Executive Memorandum on Tribal Sovereignty and Consultation to pay tribute to the opening of the National Museum of the American Indian.

In The 1920s, A Community Conspired To Kill Native Americans For Their Oil Money

Generations ago, the American Indian Osage tribe was compelled to move. Not for the first time, white settlers pushed them off their land in the 1800s. They made their new home in a rocky, infertile area in northeast Oklahoma in hopes that settlers would finally leave them alone.As it turned out, the land they had chosen was rich in oil, and in the early 20th century, members of the tribe became spectacularly wealthy. They bought cars and built mansions; they made so much oil money that the government began appointing white guardians to “help” them spend it.And then Osage members started turning up dead.

In his new book, Killers of the Flower Moon, David Grann describes how white people in the area conspired to kill Osage members in order steal their oil wealth, which could only be passed on through inheritance. “This was a culture of complicity,” he says, “and it was allowed to go on for so long because so many people were part of the plot. You had lawmen, you had prosecutors, you had the reporters who wouldn’t cover it. You had oilmen who wouldn’t speak out. You had morticians who would cover up the murders when they buried the body. You had doctors who helped give poison to people.”

On how the conspiracy worked
What makes these crimes so sinister is that it involved marrying into families. It involved a level of calculation and a level of betraying the very people you pretended to love. And the way these murders would take place is that people would marry into the families and then begin to kill each member of the family. … That’s exactly what happened to [Osage woman Mollie Burkhart]. She had married a white man, and his uncle was the most powerful settler in the area. He was known as the King of the Osage Hills … and he had orchestrated a very sinister plot played out over years where he directed his nephew, who had married Mollie Burkhart, to marry her so that he could then begin to kill the family members one by one and siphon off all the wealth.

On how Mollie Burkhart’s family was killed
One day in 1921, her older sister disappeared and Mollie looked everywhere for her and couldn’t find her. And about a week later, her body was found essentially in a ravine, decomposed. She’d been shot in the back of the head.Then just a few weeks later, Mollie’s mother began to grow increasingly sick. She seemed to be almost disappearing, withering in front of her. And within two months she, too, had died. And evidence later suggested that she had been secretly poisoned.Not long after that, Mollie was sleeping in her bed in her house with her white husband; they had a couple children. And she heard a loud explosion. She got up in panic and terror. … She had another sister who lived not far away, and in the area where her sister’s house was she could see almost this orange fire ball rising into the sky. It almost looked as if the sun had burst into the night. And her sister’s house had been blown up killing that sister as well as her sister’s husband and a servant who lived in that house.

On how far the conspirators went to cover up their crimes
Almost anyone who tried to investigate the killings — or at least stop them in the area — they, too, were killed. One attorney tried to gather evidence and one day he was thrown off a speeding train and all the evidence that he had gathered had disappeared. Another time, an oilman had traveled to Washington, D.C., to try to get help. … He checked into a boarding house in Washington, D.C. … He was then found the next day stripped naked. He had been stabbed more than 20 times; his head had been beaten in. The Washington Post at the time said what everyone at that point knew, which was there was a conspiracy to kill rich Indians.

On how authorities reacted to the deaths
It’s really important to understand back then that there was so much lawlessness. That was one of the things that shocked me when I began researching the story, that even in the 1920s much of America remained a country that was not fully rooted in its laws. Its legal institutions were very fragile; there was enormous corruption, particularly in this era and in this area. And the conspirators were able to pay off lawmen, they were able to pay off prosecutors. There was so much prejudice that these crimes were neglected.Mollie Burkhart beseeched the authorities to try to investigate, to get help, but because of prejudice they often ignored the crimes. And she issued money for a reward, she hired private investigators, but the crimes for years remained unsolved, and the body count continued to increase. By 1924 there were at least 24 murders alone. Finally, the Osage, in desperation, they issued a resolution, a tribal resolution, beseeching the federal authorities to help. And finally a then-very obscure branch of the Justice Department intervened. It was known as the Bureau of Investigation and it was what … would later be renamed the FBI.

On the FBI’s investigation
J. Edgar Hoover … was the new director, and it became one of the FBI’s first major homicide cases that it ever dealt with. … The bureau initially badly bungled the case. … [Hoover] turned the case over to a frontier lawman at the time who finally put together an undercover team that included … probably the only American Indian agent in the bureau at the time. They went undercover. … They were able, through some dogged investigation and at great danger, to eventually capture some of the ringleaders. And those ringleaders included not only Mollie Burkhart’s husband, it also included [his] uncle, a man who was seen as this great protector of the community.

On what the FBI missed in their investigation
The bureau was so anxious to wrap up the case that they ignored many, many other unsolved crimes and many, many other killers. … When you begin to look at the documents and you begin to collect the evidence from the Osage, it becomes abundantly apparent. I pulled some of the guardian papers and there was this little booklet that came out. It had a little fabric cover. All it was was essentially identifying the name of a guardian and which Osage they were in charge of. And when I opened up the book, I could see the name of the guardian and when I began to look at the names of the Osage under them I could see written next to many of them simply the word “Dead. Dead. Dead.” It was almost like a ledger; it was like this forensic, bureaucratic accounting.

But when you’re looking at it, you’re beginning to realize you’re looking at hints of a systematic murder campaign, because there’s no way all these people died in a span of just a couple years. It defied any natural death rate. The Osage were wealthy, they had good doctors. … And then when you begin to look into each of those individual cases, you start to find trails of evidence suggesting poisonings, a murder. You start to try to trace the money … and where the wealth went. And what you begin to discover is something even more horrifying than the bureau ever exposed.

Keystone Pipeline Leaks 210,000 Gallons Of Oil In South Dakota

A total of 210,000 gallons of oil leaked Thursday from the Keystone Pipeline in South Dakota, the pipeline’s operator, TransCanada, said.

Crews shut down the pipeline Thursday morning, and officials are investigating the cause of the leak, which occurred about three miles southeast of the town of Amherst, said Brian Walsh, a spokesman for the state’s Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

This is the largest Keystone oil spill to date in South Dakota, Walsh said. The leak comes just days before Nebraska officials announce a decision on whether the proposed Keystone XL Pipeline, a sister project, can move forward.

In April 2016, there was a 400-barrel release — or 16,800 gallons — with the majority of the oil cleanup completed in two months, Walsh said. About 5,000 barrels of oil spilled Thursday.

“It is a below-ground pipeline, but some oil has surfaced above ground to the grass,” Walsh said. “It will be a few days until they can excavate and get in borings to see if there is groundwater contamination.”

There were no initial reports of the oil spill affecting waterways, water systems or wildlife, he said.

The pipeline was shut down “within minutes” of the company discovering an irregularity, TransCanada said Friday. The spill has been controlled, the company said, with no further environmental impacts observed and no threat to public safety.

TransCanada said it was working with state and federal agencies.

“The safety of the public and environment are our top priorities and we will continue to provide updates as they become available,” the company said.

The Environmental Protection Agency is monitoring the situation and will provide resources and assistance if needed, a spokesman said.

“EPA is aware of the spill and is receiving periodic updates from the state of South Dakota, which is overseeing response activity at the spill site,” he said.

Concerns about the spill

The Keystone Pipeline system stretches more than 2,600 miles, from Hardisty, Alberta, east into Manitoba and then south to Texas, according to TransCanada. The pipeline transports crude oil from Canada.

The proposed Keystone XL Pipeline, which would stretch from Hardisty to Steele City, Nebraska, would complete the proposed system by cutting through Montana and South Dakota.

The sections of pipeline affected stretch from Hardisty to Cushing, Oklahoma, and to Wood River, Illinois, the company said.

The spill occurred in the same county as part of the Lake Traverse Reservation. The leak location is not on Sioux property, but it is adjacent to it and has historical value, said Dave Flute, tribal chairman for Sisseton Wahpeton Sioux Tribe.

“We want to know how long is it going to take to dig this plume of contaminated soil and how can we be reassured, without a doubt, that it has not and will not seep into the aquifer,” he said.

Flute, along with the tribal emergency management director and the manager of the tribal office of environmental protection, arrived Friday morning at the staging area of the leak site to meet with representatives from TransCanada. Flute said he was out there to offer assistance and to understand the cause of the leak and the environmental impacts it might pose.

“We want to find out, was there a crack in the pipe? We don’t know. We want to get that information,” Flute said. “More importantly, and to stay positive, they did clean up the site, they did contain it.”

Environmental activist group Greenpeace said the spill shows the new pipeline in Nebraska should not be approved.

“The Nebraska Public Service Commission needs to take a close look at this spill,” said Rachel Rye Butler of Greenpeace. “A permit approval allowing Canadian oil company TransCanada to build Keystone XL is a thumbs-up to likely spills in the future.”

New Keystone XL

In March, President Donald Trump’s administration officially issued a permit that approved construction of the Keystone XL Pipeline.

The approval followed years of intense debate over the pipeline amid hefty opposition from environmental groups, who argued the pipeline supports the extraction of crude oil from oil sands, which pumps about 17% more greenhouse gases than standard crude oil extraction. Environmentalists also opposed the pipeline because it would cut across the Ogallala Aquifer, one of the world’s largest underground deposits of fresh water.

Tar sands oil is much thicker and stickier than traditional oil, significantly complicating cleanup efforts. The fact it’s thicker also means it needs to be combined with other hazardous materials to allow it to be transported in pipelines.

Native American groups have argued the pipeline would cut across their sovereign lands.

Trump said the new pipeline will be a big win for American workers, but critics say it won’t be, because most of the jobs would be temporary.

Dakota Access Pipeline

TransCanada said Thursday that the section of the Keystone Pipeline that was leaking was isolated within 15 minutes after a drop in pressure was detected.

According to the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources’ website, this is the third pipeline spill in the state this year. Another came in April when about 84 gallons of crude oil leaked from the controversial Dakota Access Pipeline in Spink County.

That pipeline, which runs through both Dakotas and two other states, drew fierce resistance from the Standing Rock Sioux tribe in North Dakota, the tribe’s allies and environmentalists.

Opposition to the pipeline sparked monthslong protests, with as many as 10,000 people participating during the peak of the demonstrations. Clashes with police at the protests turned violent at times, with one woman nearly losing her arm after an explosion last November.

Dakota Access Pipeline Confirms Fears, Leaks 84 Gallons Of Oil On Sacred Land

Exactly what the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe feared all along has happened: the Dakota Access Pipeline has reportedly leaked, local newspaper Watertown Public Opinion reports. According to officials, a “leaky surge pump” spilled 84 gallons of oil just north of Crandon, South Dakota in Spink County.It’s as if the countless protests to preserve sacred land and an entire community’s water supply meant nothing.

The leak reportedly occurred on Apr. 4, 200 miles south of where the heavily-reported Standing Rock protests took place, according to NBC News. It wasn’t until Tuesday (May 11) that the incident was reported due to its small size. The spill was reportedly a result of a mechanical failure, according to Brian Walsh, an environmental scientist with the Ground Water Quality Program of the South Dakota Department of Environment and Natural Resources.

All of the oil reportedly leaked in a contained area, which was covered with special lining that does not allow anything to touch the soil, Vicki Granado, a spokesperson for pipeline developers Energy Transfer Partners, said.

The Sioux Tribe released a formal statement on their website on May 10, addressing the recent incident. “This is what we have said all along: oil pipelines leak and spill. Our lawsuit challenging this dangerous project is ongoing and it’s more important than ever for the court to step in and halt additional accidents before they happen – not just for the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe and our resources but for the 17 million people whose drinking water is at risk,” the statement reads. It also called for the courts to “step in and halt additional accidents before they happen.”

Shortly after Donald Trump’s Inauguration, the president signed an executive order renegotiating the construction of the pipeline. After the bill was signed, authorities forcibly evacuated the remaining protesters.

Despite initial claims from Energy Transfer Partner, whom insisted it would be safe and leak-free, Rebecca Craven, program director at the Pipeline Safety Trust told NBC that “these kinds of spills do occur.” “Sometimes they’re contained on company property, and sometimes they do more damage as they escape off company property,” she explained.

The contaminated gravel and lining have reportedly been disposed of, and the pipeline company has launched a full investigation into the incident, NBC reports. The pipeline is not currently in use, which will allow the company to re-evaluate its construction. Nevertheless, if 84 gallons of oil can leak while it’s inactive, many fear the situation will only intensify.

Crazy Horse Memorial

About Crazy Horse
Born in 1840 along Rapid Creek, Crazy Horse rose to become one of the most powerful Lakota Indians, second only to Sitting Bull. He remains somewhat of a mystery as he lived a life of solitude. But this lone wolf left an intriguing legacy and inspired sculptor Korczak Ziolkowski to create the world’s largest mountain carving, right here in the Black Hills of South Dakota.

Crazy Horse has come to represent the freedom of the Native American spirit, roaming the wilds of the Great Plains. The carved mountain monument in his honor is intended to immortalize and commemorate the soul of all native people. It’s a tall order – so much so that its massive size seems fitting. Rising over 563 feet high, Crazy Horse Memorial will be one of the tallest monuments in the world once completed.

Work on the giant mountain carving began in 1948, with the face and outline now established as Crazy Horse gazes forever across the Black Hills. Because the ambitious project is far from complete, visiting the Crazy Horse monument site allows you to witness the creation of this amazing achievement.

Visit Crazy Horse Memorial
Crazy Horse Memorial is open daily and year-round, from 8:00 a.m. until dark during the summer months, and 8:00 a.m. until 5:00 p.m. during the winter. The visitor complex includes a welcome center, restaurant, theaters, the Indian Museum of North America and the Native American Educational and Cultural Center. Fees: Adults $11, Carload $28, Motorcycles $5 per rider

FREE admission for: Children under 6, Native Americans, Crazy Horse Memorial Storytellers (donors), Military with active-duty ID, Boy Scout and Girl Scout Troops in uniform and Custer County residents.

Special Events At Crazy Horse Memorial
Special events throughout the year include:
– Crazy Horse Volksmarch on the first full weekend in June, opening a 10K route to hikers that winds around the base of the mountain and up onto Crazy Horse’s outstretched arm.
– Gift From Mother Earth Art Show is held mid-June and highlights the artwork, clothing, and jewelry of Native American and Western artists.
– Legends in Light starts at dark and is a good reason to linger under the night sky. During the summer, a nightly laser show dances across the face of the memorial, highlighting the Native American culture.
– In early October, the 10K hiking route opens once again for the Crazy Horse Autumn Volksmarch, giving visitors the chance to experience a woodlands ramble during the popular fall touring season in the Black Hills.

The Native American Healing Remedy That Kills Cancer

The Native Americans were on to something with this ruby berry…they used it as a healing remedy and food. It kills germs, speeds skin healing, and reduces fevers. And now, researchers have found it fights cancer. Best of all…it does what no mainstream cancer treatment has been able to do. It leaves healthy cells alone, targeting only cancer cells.

A study published in the Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture showed the berry extract prevented cancer cells from breaking off and spreading to healthy cells.1 And it inhibited the growth of human lung, colon, and leukemia cancer cells. A study from Canada confirmed the berry’s cancer-fighting properties.2 Prostate cancer cells self-destructed when exposed to the berry extract.

You definitely don’t get the same results with chemo. The tart berry the Native Americans knew to be a powerful disease fighter? The cranberry, probably best known for treating urinary tract infections, cranberries are a powerhouse of antioxidants. Two flavanols found in cranberries are quercetin and ursolic acid. Both have shown to prevent inflammation and inhibit tumors.3

Cranberries also contain anthocyanins and proanthocyanidins (PACs). It’s these compounds that give the berry their scarlet color. They are also potent factors in cancer inhibition. Especially PACs. Cranberry PACs have a special structure that blocks enzyme activity and pathways leading to cancer.4 They also interrupt cell signaling that could be harmful to the body.

There are many ways to include cranberries in your diet. You can enjoy them fresh, dried, and frozen. You can even reap the benefits by enjoying a glass of 100 percent organic cranberry juice. Just make sure to check the label for no added sugar. And not from concentrate. When selecting fresh cranberries choose plump and firm to the touch. And don’t forget—the redder the better. The deeper the color, the higher the concentration of healing antioxidants.

Cranberries lose some of their nutritional value when cooked. So whenever possible, eat them fresh. If you don’t care for the taste or want to ensure you are getting the maximum health benefits, cranberry supplements are available. You can buy them in pill, liquid, or powder form.

Plateau American Indian Facts

The Plateau Indians possessed areas in Western Canada, particularly British Columbia, and the United States, including parts of Idaho, California, Montana, Washington, and Oregon. This was a region overwhelmed by lakes, streams, and trees and was known for icy, cold winters and warm summers. In this area of Native American Indian certainties we have fascinating data on who the Indians of this locale were, what they ate, where they lived, and when and why their services happened. There is additionally a rundown of significant tribes inside that area.

List of Plateau American Indian Tribes
– Cayuse
– Coeur d’Alene
– Columbia
– Klamath
– Kootenai
– Lillooet
– Modoc
– Molalla
– Nez Perce
– Okanagan
– Umatilla
– Salish
– Shuswap
– Thompson
– Walla Walla
– Wasco-Wishram
– Yakama

List of Plateau American Indian Facts
– Hunting was an essential part of survival to these American Indians. They relied heavily on their weapons to obtain food. The men trapped the animals with lassos or other types of weapons and then used either harpoons, clubs, spears, slings or their primary hunting weapon, a bow and arrow to make the kill. If necessary they would also use fire to trap them or even drive them into the water to be killed.
– The indigenous people of this area believed that everything, including inanimate objects, has a soul or a spirit. This is called Animism. Many traditional ceremonies were held, mainly to strengthen and renew their bond with the supernatural. Spirit quests are a perfect example of this. Adolescents were sent to a mountaintop for a period of 5 days without food or water. They were to wait there until a vision with part human and part animal characteristics appeared. This vision was said to give supernatural powers so the adolescents would be protected throughout their life.
– In a ceremony, called the whipping ceremony, young boys from 5 to 10 years old were whipped by an Indian doctor because it was thought that this would prevent them from becoming sick during the winter months. There were also celebrations for reaching puberty, catching a first fish or game, and getting married.
– A staple of the Plateau Indian’s diet was berries. The women were responsible for gathering blackberries, huckleberries and wild strawberries. Their diet also consisted of various roots, bulbs, vegetables, meat and fish. Salmon was one of the most important foods to the Plateau Indians. They relied heavily on stored and dried food during the cold winter months.
– In addition to a variety of knives, they also used several other tools. A pebble tool was a smooth, water-worn tool. It was often used for cutting, chopping, crushing, cracking, shredding, pulping, scraping, and smoothing.
– The ulna tool was a type of pointed knife made from animal bone, usually deer. It was made in many different sizes and shapes. The knife was used for splitting everything from fish to trees.
– Bone points were used mainly for hunting and fishing purposes. They varied in size and were essentially sharpened bone pieces that could be attached to hooks or fishing lines.
– Warmer months were spent living in teepees while winters were spent in larger, more fortified villages or camps. These Indians lived mainly underground during the winter in pit houses which were sometimes connected to one another by a series of tunnels.
– Men and women of the Plateau region regularly traded possessions. They traded anything of value including robes made from buffalo, tobacco, animal skins, clothing, feathers, pipes made from stone, and food such as dried berries and roots.
– Plateau tribes were very skilled in the art of basketry. There were several different types for different purposes. These handmade baskets were used in everyday life to collect fruits and nuts, to store food, and also to cook certain foods.
– Although men and women had separate daily duties, they were considered equals. Each had a right to their own opinion and women were allowed to serve on councils. They were socially and economically equal in every way.

 

10 Quotes On The Native American Understanding of “Ownership”

“Treat the earth well: it was not given to you by your parents, it was loaned to you by your children. We do not inherit the Earth from our ancestors, we borrow it from our children.”

Before the Europeans arrived in North America, the Algonquian peoples that lived there otherwise known as the Native American, First Nations, Metis and Inuit cultures knew very little of the idea of “ownership” as it is currently understood.

To be sure, many different tribes existed, and territory was defended, but the approach to the idea of “possession” in general was very different, and many of the practices that were built into their way of life reflected this.

10 Quotes On The Native American Understanding of “Ownership”

Young children were often encouraged to give away their most highly-valued possessions as gifts, and ceremonies during which the adults would release all of their material items were common. Anyone who acquired a large number of possessions became of concern to the tribe.

Instead, the value one could bring to the community through gifts that were not separate from themselves were most highly honoured. Skills that ranged from hunting, fishing and tool-making, all the way to child-rearing and storytelling were seen as the most valued “possessions” one could have, each growing naturally out of the spirit of kindness, compassion and unity that underscored them.

It was clearly understood that these were the types of things necessary for the continued harmony of existence, both within the tribe and without. One did not “take” from the land or animals without asking. One did not “give” without understanding completely the consequence of their actions.

This form of inter-tribal politics and ecological and economical symbiosis formed the very basis of their culture and continues to this day, however rare it may be.

In the spirit of this, we bring you 10 quotes that reflect these long-lost, yet infinitely wise and natural values. As collected during the famous Corps of Discovery Expedition (with the exception of the first one), here are the unique voices of those who deeply understood the fallacy of ownership, even as it was being irrevocably thrust upon them.

1.
“It was our belief that the love of possessions is a weakness to be overcome… Children must early learn the beauty of generosity. They are taught to give what they prize most, that they may taste the happiness of giving… The Indians in their simplicity literally give away all that they have to relatives, to guests of other tribes or clans, but above all to the poor and the aged, from whom they can hope for no return.” ~ Charles Alexander Eastman

2.
“The American Indian is of the soil, whether it be the region of forests, plains, pueblos, or mesas. He fits into the landscape, for the hand that fashioned the continent also fashioned the man for his surroundings. He once grew as naturally as the wild sunflowers, he belongs just as the buffalo belonged…” ~ Luther Standing Bear

3.
“What is this you call property? It cannot be the earth, for the land is our mother, nourishing all her children, beasts, birds, fish and all men. The woods, the streams, everything on it belongs to everybody and is for the use of all. How can one man say it belongs only to him?” ~ Massasoit

4.
“One does not sell the land people walk on.” ~ Crazy Horse

5.
“We do not own the freshness of the air or the sparkle of the water. How can you buy them from us?” ~ Sealth

6.
“My reason teaches me that land cannot be sold. The Great Spirit gave it to his children to live upon. So long as they occupy and cultivate it, they have a right to the soil. Nothing can be sold but such things as can be carried away” ~ Black Hawk

7.
“We know our lands have now become more valuable. The white people think we do not know their value; but we know that the land is everlasting, and the few goods we receive for it are soon worn out and gone.” ~ Canassatego

8.
“I love this land and the buffalo and will not part with it… I have heard you intend to settle us on a reservation near the mountains. I don’t want to settle. I love to roam over the prairies. There I feel free and happy, but when we settle down we grow pale and die. A long time ago this land belonged to our fathers, but when I go up to the river I see camps of soldiers on its banks. These soldiers cut down my timber, they kill my buffalo and when I see that, my heart feels like bursting.” ~ Satanta, Kiowa Chief

9.
“If we ever owned the land we own it still, for we never sold it. In the treaty councils the commissioners have claimed that our country had been sold to the government. Suppose a white man should come to me and say, Joseph, I like your horses, and I want to buy them. Then he goes to my neighbor and says to him; Joseph’s horses. I want to buy them, but he refuses to sell. My neighbor answers, Pay me the money and I will sell you Joseph’s horses. The white man returns to me, and says, Joseph, I have bought your horses and you must let me have them. If we sold our lands to the government, this is the way they were bought.” ~ Chief Joseph-Nez Perce

10.
“It was land – it has ever been land – for which the White man oppresses the Indian and to gain possession of which he commits any crime. Treaties that have been made are vain attempts to save a little of the fatherland, treaties holy to us by the smoke of the pipe – but nothing is holy to the white man. Little by little, with greed and cruelty unsurpassed by the animal, he has taken all. The loaf is gone and now the white man wants the crumbs.” ~ Luther Standing Bear

Choctaw Nation, The First American Native Code Talkers Ever To Serve In The US Military

Nineteen Choctaw men have been documented as being the first to use their own language as a “code” to transmit military messages. During the first world war, with the tapping of the American Army’s phone lines, the Germans were able to learn the location of where the Allied Forces were stationed, as well as where sup-plies were kept. When the Choctaw men were put on the phones and talked in their Native speech, the Germans couldn’t effectively spy on the trans-missions.

Native Americans did not receive nationwide citizenship until 1924, yet the Choctaws were both patriotic and valiant, with a desire to serve in the war effort. Many Choctaw men volunteered in WWI to fight for our country. Mem- Choctaw Code Talkers of WWI instrumental in ending war bers of Choctaw and other Tribal Nations also served with distinction using Native languages in World War II, Korea and Vietnam.

Among these brave warriors were the famed Wind Talkers of the Navajo Tribe in World War II, who were deserving of the Gold Medal they received from Congress in the year 2000.

In a postwar memo, Bloor expressed his pleasure and satisfaction. “We were confident the possibilities of the telephone had been obtained without its hazards.” He noted, however, that the Choctaw tongue, by itself, was unable to fully express the military terminology then in use. No Choctaw word or phrase existed to describe a “machine gun”, for example. So the Choctaws improvised, using their words for “big gun” to describe “artillery” and “little gun shoot fast” for “machine gun.”

“The results were very gratifying,” Bloor concluded.

The men who made up the United States’ first code talkers were either full-blood or mixed-blood Choctaw Indians. All were born in the Choctaw Nation of the Indian Territory, in what is now southeastern Oklahoma, when their nation was a self-governed republic. Later, other tribes would use their languages for the military in various units, most notably the Navajo in World War II.

Law Enforcement Officers Interrupt Sacred Women’s Ceremony At Prayer Camp

“Officers intruded on ladies’ service at camp today around evening time. Envision police jumping into your congregation while you petition undermine you.” said Ruth Hopkins, journalist from Oceti Oyate. “There was no immediate activity this evening. Grandmas were going down stately lessons to the ladies, then the Law implementation officers came.” included Ruth Hopkins. “As overseers of Unci Maka (Mother Earth) and Life-suppliers we hold a duty to secure the future for our youngsters and the following seven eras to come.”

Water defenders contradicting the Dakota Access Pipeline assembled for a holy service at the Oceti Oyate – Cheyenne River Camp this end of the week, February 18-19, for an Indigenous ladies’ gathering.”We are attempting to get whatever number ladies and individuals down here this end of the week as could be allowed,” said Gingger Shankar, an artist sorting out the occasion, in an email. This is on the grounds that North Dakota Gov. Doug Burgum marked an official order(February 15) commanding a departure of the camps by 2 p.m. February 22.As Women of Sovereign Nations, Lands, and Waters, we have been given the respect of looking after the earth, the water and every single living being on it. There are exceptional lessons given to us by the Creator that have been gone down through each era by our grandmas.

Consecrated Indigenous ladies’ social event was going to revive that convention on a huge scale for every one of the grandmas, little girls and granddaughters to involvement and protect our Children’s future.